Saturday, August 15, 2020

Captain Lakshmi Sahgal: A beacon of inspiration

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Charvi Trivedi

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Captain Lakshmi Sahgal: A beacon of inspiration


Global Views 360

Publication Date

August 15, 2020


Captain Lakshmi Sahgal in INA Uniform | Source: Indiatimes

Indian freedom movement has given countless heroes who gave the prime of their lives to see India chart her own destiny by throwing out the Britishers. While there were leaders and fighters like Mahatma Gandhi or Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, whom everyone knows, there were many other bravehearts who gave up their lives and used every ounce of their strength to free India from the clutches of British Rule. Doctor Lakshmi Sahgal was one of them.

Early Life

Lakshmi Swaminathan was born in Madras (now Chennai), which was under the Madras Presidency, British India, on October 24, 1914. Born to influential parents, Lakshmi was enthused with her mother’s contribution in the field of social work and inherited her father’s intelligence, who was a lawyer, and went on to become a doctor.

She received her MBBS degree from Madras Medical college in the year 1938 and a diploma in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the following year and was a working doctor in the Kasturba Gandhi Hospital, Chennai. Moreover, she established a clinic in Singapore, a year after getting her diploma, for the under-privileged and Indian migrant labourers.

In Singapore she joined hands with the Indian Independence League, a political body headquartered in Singapore, which prepared Indians living outside of India, to seek independence from the harsh British rule.

Indian National Army days

When the Japanese forces lost the 1942 Battle of Singapore to the British Army, DR. Sahgal played a prominent role in tending to the injured war prisoners. Several of these prisoners had not lost hope yet and wanted to begin an Indian Liberation Army. Their wish was granted when Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose visited Singapore in July, 1943. After listening to Bose’s speeches on wanting to establish an army composed of women to fight against the British forces, Lakshmi quickly set up a meeting with Bose and expressed her desire to be a part of the women regiment. She soon launched the Rani of Jhansi regiment, which was a wonderful opportunity for numerous women to do something for their nation.

Lakshmi Swaminathan turned into Captain Lakshmi, which marked the beginning of her inspiring journey in the freedom struggle. Nearly 50,000 women trained and fought under her command. She also carried the title of Colonel in the women’s army unit, the first one ever to be carried by a female in the entire continent of Asia during that time. Her regiment battled against the British forces along with the Axis Powers.

Unfortunately, she was arrested in 1945 in Burma (now Myanmar) and remained there for a year until she was sent back to India.

Later years

Lakshmi married Colonel Prem Kumar Sahgal in March, 1947 in Lahore, British India. Lakshmi Sahgal moved to Kanpur with her husband and carried on with her medical practice, attending to the needs of evacuees after the Partition of India.

After Independence, Lakshmi entered into the world of policy making and represented her party, The Communist Party of India (Marxist), in Rajya Sabha. During the Bangladesh crisis, she was the one who called for medical aid for thousands of refugees from Bangladesh who came into Calcutta. Moreover, she led a medical team to tend to the victims of the catastrophic Bhopal Gas Tragedy and worked towards refurbishing peace during the anti-Sikh riots, both which took place in the year 1984.

In 2002, she was the only opponent of A.P.J Abdul Kalam when she got elected as a candidate in the Presidential elections, of four leftist parties namely the Revolutionary Socialist Party, All India Forward Bloc, the Communist Party of India and the Communist Party of India (Marxist).

DR. Lakshmi Sahgal was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second-highest civilian award, in 1998 for her great achievements, by R.K. Narayan. An airport in Dehat district of Kanpur, Captain Lakshmi Sahgal International Airport, is named in her honour.

She passed away on July, 23, 2012 after suffering from a cardiac arrest, at a good age of 97. Her noble deeds did not stop even after her death as she donated her body to Kanpur Medical College for medical research.

She was a true leader who broke the glass ceiling and barged into the male dominated world of revolutionary army which played a great role in throwing out the Britishers from India. After India’s independence she excelled in another male dominated domain, politics. Hers is an inspiring story that women can be equally brave and fierce as men and can achieve anything by showing perseverance.

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January 19, 2021 8:34 AM

Internet privacy in Brazil: An example of already weakened state of Democracy

Brazil’s president Jair Bolsonaro’s ascent to power attracted international attention for their potential impact on human rights. His highly controversial positions on Brazil’s past military dictatorship, civil rights and his greater support for conservative agenda is very likely to jeopardize freedom of expression and the nation’s fragile democracy. Bolsonaro’s ascent to power has not been welcomed by people around the globe.  His blind eye towards democracy has created a human rights crisis in Brazil. In 2017, violence reached a new record in the books of Brazil with an estimated 64,000 killings. More than 1.2 million cases of domestic violence were pending in the courts at the start of 2018. About 5,144 people were killed due to police brutality in 2017 and weakening state control of prisons has facilitated gang recruitments. Brazil has lost over 100,000 people to COVID-19, the pandemic which Bolsonaro strongly repudiated as a conspiracy. The president’s desperate authoritarian attempts to forcibly seize control has pushed the nation into a political crisis inter alia free fall of the economy, a pandemic, a human rights crisis and a democratic recession. “This is the worst crisis Brazil has faced in its history. It’s a political crisis, an economic crisis, and a public health crisis. I’ve thought about this a lot, and I can’t think of another moment when the country was in worse shape than it is right now.” These are the exact words of Professor James Green, a Brazilian studies teacher at Brown University, a man who has lived through the military dictatorship in Brazil which lasted from 1964 to 1985.

Amidst these crises, Bolsonaro has periled the integrity and autonomy of Brazil’s most vital democratic institutions. In May 2020, the scandalous president even contemplated ramping up the military to shut down Brazil’s Supreme Court as they continued investigations into his network of advisors and his family. The anti-terrorism bills pushed in the senate after the ascent of Bolsonaro is another key example of endangerment to democracy. The vague and broad definitions of terrorism in the bill potentially criminalizes protests and even basic social movements. These are inconsistent with the standard of precision that Brazilian criminal law maintains. The capricious characterization of a “terrorist act” leaves the door open to subjective and arbitrary decisions which is not new to the nation.

The anti-terrorism bill says that it is “terrorist act” to interfere or tamper computer systems or databases with any political or ideological motivation even without a malicious intent. This would jeopardize the work of several security researchers and journalists in Brazil. Unfortunately, they are not alone.

On 30th June 2020, the Senate of brazil passed the PLS 2630/2020   (Law of Freedom, Liability, and Transparency on the Internet) popularly known as the fake-news law. Fake news has definitely been a problem all over the world. 17 states have passed some form of regulation directing disinformation during the pandemic. The term “fake-news” has been engraved in the global political discourse in the last half decade. With the decline in global levels of press freedom, the domino effect of so-called “fake-news laws” is attracting some serious risks to press freedom and freedom of expression. It is certain that Bolsonaro took advantage of the pandemic situation and passed the fake-news law with the excuse of COVID-19 misinformation. There are several underlying concerns and apprehensions about this law.

  1. Traceability requirements for private messaging services like WhatsApp and Signal would require the apps to store the logs and records of “broadcasted messages” which implies all the messages sent by over 5 users which reaches at least 1000 people within the span of three months. Messaging service companies are required to report most of the information to the government of Brazil hence creating a centralized log of data interactions. This breaks the end-to-end encryption service provided to the users by some of the messaging apps. If companies do not oblige to weaken the technical protection given to the users of Brazil, the bill forces them to leave the country.
    This imposition of “tech mandate” was condemned by Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) as they called it out for weakening privacy protection. Attached to this is a “technical capability derivative”, whether or not platforms will be able to trace back individual messages.
  1. Article 37 of the law mandates all the private messaging and social networking apps having a customer base in Brazil to appoint a legal representative who will have the power to remotely access user logs and databases. This pseudo attempt to localize the measures not just gives rise to privacy concerns but also questions if the Brazilian Senate has undermined United States’ laws such as Electronic Communication Privacy Act and CLOUD Act. Both of these laws mandate US-based social networking service providers to follow and check certain legal safeguard before handing the private data to any foreign law enforcement agents.
  1. If any social media account is reported to be inauthentic or automated, the online platform would have to confirm the identity of the user and verify the identity with any government ID in Brazil or a passport for a foreigner. The government can also demand confirmation of identity for any account through the means of a court order. This provision broadly attacks anonymity and privacy of users online and ignores its benefits on the internet such as whistle blowing and protection from stalkers.
  1. This law also makes it illegal to create or share any content online which may pose a risk to” economic order or social peace” in Brazil. Both of these terms are vaguely defined and even vaguely present. This opens gates to a wide range of content creators to be called out as “illegal”. The law also criminalizes intentionally being a member of an online group whose main activity is sharing defamatory content. This includes all meme groups which primarily share memes about anyone in an authoritative position in Brazil. This definitely puts a subjective cap and poses significant challenges to the freedom of expression and restricts basic ability of Brazilians to engage in discourse on online platforms.

The fake-news law makes social media companies legally liable for content published online on their platforms which acts as an incentive to them to restrict the freedom of speech of Brazilians at the time of any social or political unrest or even times like the present. While Brazil faces a real problem of fake news, this hastily written statute is not the right solution. At the time of a pandemic, when most of the world is functioning on a virtual sphere, the reckless fake-news law has added weight onto the fragile thread holding Brazil’s democracy. Jair Bolsonaro has managed to push democracy to a breaking point even without the drastic steps that he earlier contemplated.

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